Writing Skills

Complex sentences - Part 1: Conjunctions for complex sentences

Different conjunctions are used to show different relationships
between the independent and the dependent clause:

Relationship Conjunction Example
contrast although
though
even though
while
whereas

The US failed to ratify the Kyoto treaty although/though it supported the UN’s objectives on global warming.

Clean water is scarce in the poorest countries while Western consumers have abundant supplies.

reason because
since
as

Dolly the sheep was unique because she was cloned from an adult cell.

The findings were flawed since the data were inaccurate.

time when
as soon as
while
as
once
until
after
before

Sea water evaporates when the sun radiates heat.

The water vapour cools while it is rising.

The water vapour condenses as it cools.

Clouds begin to form once condensation starts to occur.

The clouds move until they reach high land.

purpose so that Tourists visiting Antarctica are required to clean their footwear so that contamination can be avoided.
condition if
unless

Pollution levels will rise if emissions are not controlled.

Management recommendations are ineffective unless they are implemented.

manner as We wrote up the results of the experiment as we had been directed.
place where People prefer to shop where they feel relaxed.
adding information about a person who
whose

The person who spoke to me yesterday gave me the wrong information.

Alvar Aalto was a Finnish architect whose ideas are fundamental to modern design.

adding information about a thing which
that

Canna is an island which lies off the west coast of Scotland.

There are geological changes in coastlines that may be impossible to influence.

introducing reported information that
whether
how

It was unclear whether the management would fund the proposed training scheme.

This article researches how climate change might affect wildlife in Britain.